This directory contains alignments of the rat assembly (rn3, Jun. 2003)
to the human assembly (hg16, Jul. 2003).

Files included in this directory:

  - axtNet directory: contains chained and netted alignments, i.e. the
    best chains in the genome, with gaps in the best chains filled in 
    by next-best chains where possible. 

  - axtTight directory: contains a highly conserved subset of the best 
    alignments for any part of the human genome. 

The alignments in the axtNet and axtTight directories are in "axt" 
format. For a description, see 
http://genome.ucsc.edu/goldenPath/help/axt.html.

The alignments were produced by the blastz alignment program, which 
is available from Webb Miller's lab at Penn State University 
(http://www.bx.psu.edu/miller_lab/). The blastz scoring matrix used was:

           A    C    G    T
      A   91 -114  -31 -123
      C -114  100 -125  -31
      G  -31 -125  100 -114
      T -123  -31 -114   91

with a gap open penalty of 400 and a gap extension penalty of 30.  The 
minimum score for an alignment to be kept was 5000 for the first pass  
and 2200 for the second pass, which restricted the search space to the 
regions between two alignments found in the first pass.

Each chromosome was divided into 10,100,000 base chunks with 10000 bases
of overlap. The .lav format blastz output, which does not include
the sequence, was converted to .axt with lavToAxt. 

The axtNet alignments were processed with chainNet, netSyntenic,
and netClass written by Jim Kent at UCSC. The axtTight alignments were
processed with subsetAxt from Jim Kent using the matrix:

         A    C    G    T
    A  100 -200 -100 -200
    C -200  100 -200 -100
    G -100 -200  100 -200
    T -200 -100 -200  100

with a gap open penalty of 2000 and a gap extension penalty of 50.
The minimum score was 3400. 

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If you plan to download a large file or multiple files from this 
directory, we recommend you use ftp rather than downloading the files 
via our website. To do so, ftp to hgdownload.cse.ucsc.edu, then go to 
the directory goldenPath/hg16/vsRn3/. To download multiple 
files, use the "mget" command:

    mget <filename1> <filename2> ...
    - or -
    mget -a (to download all the files in the directory) 

All the tables in this directory are freely available for public use.

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References

Chiaromonte, F., Yap, V.B., and Miller, W.  Scoring pairwise genomic 
sequence alignments.  Pac Symp Biocomput 2002;115-26.

Kent, W.J., Baertsch, R., Hinrichs, A., Miller, W., and Haussler, D. 
Evolution's cauldron: Duplication, deletion, and rearrangement in the 
mouse and human genomes.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(20):11484-11489 
Sep 30 2003.

Schwartz, S., Kent, W.J., Smit, A., Zhang, Z., Baertsch, R., Hardison, R., 
Haussler, D., and Miller, W.  Human-mouse alignments with BLASTZ</A>. 
Genome Res. 13(1):103-7 (2003).
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[DIR]Parent Directory  -  
[TXT]README.txt15-Dec-2004 11:45 2.9K 
[DIR]axtNet/06-Oct-2005 12:43 -  
[DIR]axtTight/06-Oct-2005 12:43 -  

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